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Middle East Bahrain The World Factbook

 

Middle East :: Bahrain Print

Page last updated on May 05, 2020

The World Factbook Country/Location Flag Modal

Middle East :: Bahrain Print

Flag Description

red, the traditional color for flags of Persian Gulf states, with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five points represent the five pillars of Islam

note: until 2002, the flag had eight white points, but this was reduced to five to avoid confusion with the Qatari flag

The World Factbook Country/Location Locator Map Modal

Middle East :: Bahrain Print

The World Factbook Country/Location Photo Gallery Modal

Middle East :: Bahrain

All Space Capital Places

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Caption

Walls of the historic Qal’at al-Bahrain (Fortress of Bahrain), which is the largest and most ancient historical site in the country. It was an important center of the Dilmun Civilization (2nd and 1st millennia B.C.); in later periods, it served as a trading and military outpost.

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Caption

The Durrat Al Bahrain complex is featured in this image photographed from the International Space Station. Set at the southern end of Bahrain Island, at the furthest point from the cities of the kingdom, is this complex of 15 artificial islands designed for residential living and tourism with luxury hotels and shopping malls. Aimed at a cosmopolitan clientele, the Durrat Al Bahrain includes 21 sq km (8 sq mi) of new land for more than 1,000 residences that has been designed as The Islands (six crescent-shaped “atolls” leading off five fish-shaped “petals”). The Crescent at the bottom of the ring is the heart of the complex and features shops, restaurants, hotels, apartments, offices, and schools. The Central Island is dedicated to one, ultra-luxurious hotel. The three, thick, crescent-shaped islands at the lower left make up the Durrat Marina; the area between the Marina and the Crescent is a golf course. Image courtesy of NASA.

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Caption

Manama, the capital of Bahrain, seen from a distance. Its wealth is based on financial services, petroleum, ship repair, and tourism; one of its shopping malls, the Seef (Souk), has luxury apartments and five-star hotels.

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Downtown Manama is a shopper’s paradise.

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The Tree of Life is one of Bahrain’s major tourist destinations; it is located in the middle of the desert and somehow has survived for hundreds of years with no obvious source of water.

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A mosque near the entrance to the “Souk” market area in Manama.

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A mosque along the Khalifa al Kabeer Highway in Manama.

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A mosque near the corner of Al Adliya Avenue and Osama bin Ziad Road in Manama.

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Caption

Mosque near Delmun Roundabout in Manama.

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Caption

Mosque east of Bab-al-Bahrain between Government Road and King Faisal Road in Manama.

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Caption

Entrance to the National Museum in Manama. The museum displays the history and traditions of Bahrain.

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  • Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia

    26 00 N, 50 33 E

    Middle East

    total: 760 sq km

    land: 760 sq km

    water: 0 sq km

    country comparison to the world: 188

    3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

    0 km

    161 km

    arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

    mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment

    lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

    highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 135 m

    oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls

    agricultural land: 11.3% (2016 est.)

    arable land: 2.1% (2016 est.) / permanent crops: 3.9% (2016 est.) / permanent pasture: 5.3% (2016 est.)

    forest: 0.7% (2016 est.)

    other: 88% (2016 est.)

    40 sq km (2012)

    smallest population of the Gulf States, but urbanization rate exceeds 90%; largest settlement concentration is found on the far northern end of the island in and around Manamah and Al Muharraq

    periodic droughts; dust storms

    desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources (groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs); lowered water table leaves aquifers vulnerable to saline contamination; desalinization provides some 90% of the country’s freshwater

    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

    close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world’s petroleum must transit to reach open ocean

  • 1,505,003 (July 2020 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 154

    noun: Bahraini(s)

    adjective: Bahraini

    Bahraini 46%, Asian 45.5%, other Arab 4.7%, African 1.6%, European 1%, other 1.2% (includes Gulf Co-operative country nationals, North and South Americans, and Oceanians) (2010 est.)

    Arabic (official), English, Farsi, Urdu

    Muslim 73.7%, Christian 9.3%, Jewish 0.1%, other 16.9% (2017 est.)

    0-14 years: 18.45% (male 141,039/female 136,687)

    15-24 years: 15.16% (male 129,310/female 98,817)

    25-54 years: 56.14% (male 550,135/female 294,778)

    55-64 years: 6.89% (male 64,761/female 38,870)

    65 years and over: 3.36% (male 25,799/female 24,807) (2020 est.)

    total dependency ratio: 26.5

    youth dependency ratio: 23.1

    elderly dependency ratio: 3.4

    potential support ratio: 29.8 (2020 est.)

    total: 32.9 years

    male: 34.4 years

    female: 30.3 years (2020 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 102

    2.08% (2020 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 43

    12.7 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 149

    2.8 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 226

    10.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 7

    smallest population of the Gulf States, but urbanization rate exceeds 90%; largest settlement concentration is found on the far northern end of the island in and around Manamah and Al Muharraq

    urban population: 89.5% of total population (2020)

    rate of urbanization: 4.38% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

    635,000 MANAMA (capital) (2020)

    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

    15-24 years: 1.31 male(s)/female

    25-54 years: 1.87 male(s)/female

    55-64 years: 1.67 male(s)/female

    65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female

    total population: 1.53 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

    14 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 137

    total: 8.3 deaths/1,000 live births

    male: 9.2 deaths/1,000 live births

    female: 7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 147

    total population: 79.4 years

    male: 77.1 years

    female: 81.8 years (2020 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 52

    1.69 children born/woman (2020 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 176

    improved: urban: 100% of population

    rural: 100% of population

    total: 100% of population

    unimproved: urban: 0% of population

    rural: 0% of population

    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

    4.9% (2016)

    0.93 physicians/1,000 population (2015)

    2 beds/1,000 population (2014)

    improved: urban: 99.2% of population (2015 est.)

    rural: 99.2% of population (2015 est.)

    total: 99.2% of population (2015 est.)

    unimproved: urban: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)

    rural: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)

    total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)

    <.1% (2017 est.)

    <500 (2017 est.)

    <100 (2017 est.)

    29.8% (2016)

    country comparison to the world: 25

    2.3% of GDP (2017)

    country comparison to the world: 163

    definition: age 15 and over can read and write

    total population: 97.5%

    male: 99.9%

    female: 94.9% (2018)

    total: 15 years

    male: 15 years

    female: 16 years (2017)

    total: 5.3%

    male: 2.6%

    female: 12.2% (2012 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 164

  • conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain

    conventional short form: Bahrain

    local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn

    local short form: Al Bahrayn

    former: Dilmun, Tylos, Awal, Mishmahig, Bahrayn, State of Bahrain

    etymology: the name means “the two seas” in Arabic and refers to the water bodies surrounding the archipelago

    constitutional monarchy

    name: Manama

    geographic coordinates: 26 14 N, 50 34 E

    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

    etymology: name derives from the Arabic “al-manama” meaning “place of rest” or “place of dreams”

    4 governorates (muhafazat, singular – muhafazah); Asimah (Capital), Janubiyah (Southern), Muharraq, Shamaliyah (Northern)

    15 August 1971 (from the UK)

    National Day, 16 December (1971); note – 15 August 1971 was the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 was the date of independence from British protection

    history: adopted 14 February 2002

    amendments: proposed by the king or by at least 15 members of either chamber of the National Assembly followed by submission to an Assembly committee for review and, if approved, submitted to the government for restatement as drafts; passage requires a two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both chambers and validation by the king; constitutional articles on the state religion (Islam), state language (Arabic), and the monarchy and “inherited rule” cannot be amended; amended 2012, 2017 (2017)

    mixed legal system of Islamic (sharia) law, English common law, Egyptian civil, criminal, and commercial codes; customary law

    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Bahrain

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 25 years; 15 years for Arab nationals

    20 years of age; universal

    chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969)

    head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al-Khalifa (since 1971); First Deputy Prime Minister SALMAN bin Hamad Al- Khalifa (since 11 March 2013); Deputy Prime Ministers MUHAMMAD bin Mubarak Al-Khalifa (since September 2005), Jawad bin Salim al-ARAIDH, ALI bin Khalifa bin Salman Al-Khalifa (since 11 December 2006), KHALID bin Abdallah Al-Khalifa (since November 2010)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

    description: bicameral National Assembly consists of:
    Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura (40 seats; members appointed by the king)
    Council of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwab (40 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year renewable terms)

    elections:
    Consultative Council – last appointments on 12 December 2018 (next NA)
    Council of Representatives – first round for 9 members held on 24 November 2018; second round for remaining 31 members held on 1 December 2018 (next to be held in 2022)

    election results:
    Consultative Council – composition – men 31, women 9, percent of women 22.5%

    Council of Representatives (for 2018 election)  – percent of vote by society – NA; seats by society – Islamic Al-Asalah (Sunni Salafi) 3, Minbar al-Taqadumi (Communist) 2, National Unity Gathering (Sunni progovernment) 1, National Islamic Minbar (Sunni Muslim Brotherhood) 1, independent 33; composition – men 34, women 6, percent of women 15%; note – total National Assembly percent of women 19%

    highest courts: Court of Cassation (consists of the chairman and 3 judges); Supreme Court of Appeal (consists of the chairman and 3 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the president and 6 members); High Sharia Court of Appeal (court sittings include the president and at least one judge)

    judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by royal decree and serve for a specified tenure; Constitutional Court president and members appointed by the Higher Judicial Council, a body chaired by the monarch and includes judges from the Court of Cassation, sharia law courts, and Civil High Courts of Appeal; members serve 9-year terms; High Sharia Court of Appeal member appointments by royal decree for a specified tenure

    subordinate courts: Civil High Courts of Appeal; middle and lower civil courts; High Sharia Court of Appeal; Senior Sharia Court; Administrative Courts of Appeal; military courts

    ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CICA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

    Ambassador Abdulla bin Rashid AL KHALIFA (since 21 July 2017)

    chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

    telephone: [1] (202) 342-1111

    FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192

    consulate(s) general: New York

    chief of mission: Ambassador Justin H. SIBERELL (since November 2017)

    telephone: [973] 1724-2700

    embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 331, Zinj District, Manama

    mailing address: PSC 451, Box 660, FPO AE 09834-5100
    international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama

    FAX: [973] 1727-2594

    red, the traditional color for flags of Persian Gulf states, with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five points represent the five pillars of Islam

    a red field surmounted by a white serrated band with five white points; national colors: red, white

    name: “Bahrainona” (Our Bahrain)

    lyrics/music: unknown

  • Oil and natural gas play a dominant role in Bahrain’s economy. Despite the Government’s past efforts to diversify the economy, oil still comprises 85% of Bahraini budget revenues. In the last few years lower world energy prices have generated sizable budget deficits – about 10% of GDP in 2017 alone. Bahrain has few options for covering these deficits, with low foreign assets and fewer oil resources compared to its GCC neighbors. The three major US credit agencies downgraded Bahrain’s sovereign debt rating to “junk” status in 2016, citing persistently low oil prices and the government’s high debt levels. Nevertheless, Bahrain was able to raise about $4 billion by issuing foreign currency denominated debt in 2017.

    Other major economic activities are production of aluminum – Bahrain’s second biggest export after oil and gas –finance, and construction. Bahrain continues to seek new natural gas supplies as feedstock to support its expanding petrochemical and aluminum industries. In April 2018 Bahrain announced it had found a significant oil field off the country’s west coast, but is still assessing how much of the oil can be extracted profitably.

    In addition to addressing its current fiscal woes, Bahraini authorities face the long-term challenge of boosting Bahrain’s regional competitiveness — especially regarding industry, finance, and tourism — and reconciling revenue constraints with popular pressure to maintain generous state subsidies and a large public sector. Since 2015, the government lifted subsidies on meat, diesel, kerosene, and gasoline and has begun to phase in higher prices for electricity and water. As part of its diversification plans, Bahrain implemented a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the US in August 2006, the first FTA between the US and a Gulf state. It plans to introduce a Value Added Tax (VAT) by the end of 2018.

    $71.17 billion (2017 est.)

    $68.59 billion (2016 est.)

    $66.3 billion (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 100

    $35.33 billion (2017 est.)

    3.8% (2017 est.)

    3.5% (2016 est.)

    2.9% (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 86

    $49,000 (2017 est.)

    $48,200 (2016 est.)

    $48,400 (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 33

    19.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    21.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

    22% of GDP (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 99

    household consumption: 45.8% (2017 est.)

    government consumption: 15.5% (2017 est.)

    investment in fixed capital: 26.1% (2017 est.)

    investment in inventories: 0.4% (2017 est.)

    exports of goods and services: 80.2% (2017 est.)

    imports of goods and services: -67.9% (2017 est.)

    agriculture: 0.3% (2017 est.)

    industry: 39.3% (2017 est.)

    services: 60.4% (2017 est.)

    fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish

    petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, Islamic and offshore banking, insurance, ship repairing, tourism

    0.6% (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 165

    831,600 (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 149

    agriculture: 1%

    industry: 32%

    services: 67% (2004 est.)

    3.6% (2017 est.)

    3.7% (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 43

    NA

    revenues: 5.854 billion (2017 est.)

    expenditures: 9.407 billion (2017 est.)

    16.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 176

    -10.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 211

    88.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    81.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 26

    calendar year

    1.4% (2017 est.)

    2.8% (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 76

    -$1.6 billion (2017 est.)

    -$1.493 billion (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 159

    $15.38 billion (2017 est.)

    $12.78 billion (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 75

    UAE 19.6%, Saudi Arabia 11.7%, US 10.8%, Oman 8.1%, China 6.5%, Qatar 5.7%, Japan 4.2% (2017)

    petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles

    $16.08 billion (2017 est.)

    $13.59 billion (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 84

    crude oil, machinery, chemicals

    China 8.8%, UAE 7.2%, US 7.1%, Australia 5.3%, Japan 4.8% (2017)

    $2.349 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

    $3.094 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 118

    $52.15 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

    $42.55 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 63

    Bahraini dinars (BHD) per US dollar –

    0.376 (2017 est.)

    0.376 (2016 est.)

    0.376 (2015 est.)

    0.376 (2014 est.)

    0.376 (2013 est.)

  • electrification – total population: 100% (2016)

    26.81 billion kWh (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 70

    26.11 billion kWh (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 67

    213 million kWh (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 74

    276 million kWh (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 89

    3.928 million kW (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 90

    100% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 2

    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 44

    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 156

    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 175

    40,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 58

    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 90

    226,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 29

    124.6 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 67

    274,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 45

    61,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 94

    245,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 30

    14,530 bbl/day (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 136

    15.89 billion cu m (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 36

    15.89 billion cu m (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 42

    0 cu m (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 64

    0 cu m (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 88

    92.03 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 53

    37.98 million Mt (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 67

  • total subscriptions: 274,733

    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 19 (2018 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 117

    total subscriptions: 2,092,714

    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 145 (2018 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 149

    general assessment: well-developed LTE networks, 5G trials tested and deployment in the near future; mobile penetration is high compared to the region; development of its own National Broadband Network (NBN); competition is good and telecoms are regulated; telecom contributes 4% to the GDP (2020)

    domestic: 19 per 100 fixed-line, 145 per 100 mobile-cellular; modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly expanding mobile-cellular telephones (2018)

    international: country code – 973; landing points for the FALCON, Tata TGN-Gulf, GBICS/MENA, and FOG submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Africa; tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; satellite earth station – 1 (2019)

    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic’s effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry – mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite – has moderated

    state-run Bahrain Radio and Television Corporation (BRTC) operates 5 terrestrial TV networks and several radio stations; satellite TV systems provide access to international broadcasts; 1 private FM station directs broadcasts to Indian listeners; radio and TV broadcasts from countries in the region are available (2019)

    .bh

    total: 1,351,326

    percent of population: 98% (July 2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 124

  • number of registered air carriers: 6 (2015)

    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 42 (2015)

    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 5,313,756 (2015)

    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 240,107,004 mt-km (2015)

    A9C (2016)

    4 (2013)

    country comparison to the world: 185

    total: 4 (2017)

    over 3,047 m: 3 (2017)

    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)

    1 (2013)

    20 km gas, 54 km oil (2013)

    total: 4,122 km (2010)

    paved: 3,392 km (2010)

    unpaved: 730 km (2010)

    country comparison to the world: 149

    total: 261

    by type: bulk carrier 1, container ship 1, general cargo 11, oil tanker 4, other 244 (2019)

    country comparison to the world: 59

    major seaport(s): Mina’ Salman, Sitrah

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